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Contextual understanding of land conflicts and natural resource management and approriate conflict resolution methodologies is the concern of CRU in developing the capacity as a knowledge base for the development of mediation in Indonesia. For this reason, CRU conducts research and documentation on multi-party mediation processes and initiates research on land and natural resource conflicts in the Indonesian context.
Research and documentation of mediation processes are carried out to to extract lessons learned from mediation activities both within the pilot project and the mediation processes carried out by the partners. Research and documentation of processes are carried out in a straightforward manner to capture the basic principles and best practices of mediation and its background in the Indonesian context.
In addition to enrich understanding on land and natural resource conflicts, CRU works with partners to conduct research on issues related to land and natural resource conflicts in Indonesia. The results of the research will be source for knowledge and insights to encourage the actionable and sustainable settlements of land and natural resource conflicts.
In the development model that targets economic growth, various development initiatives, especially those based on land, have the potential to become conflicts, especially the occurrence of conflicting claims between the business sector and the community. Eventually, conflicts over land and natural resources become an unavoidable “cost” in development activities, and these “costs” are then borne by the conflicting parties, for example community groups, the business sector or the government. The Cost of Conflict Study tries to understand how the point of view of government in conflict, including the burden it suffers when dealing with conflict. This government’s perception will affect how the government responds in dealing with land and natural resource conflicts within its area in the form of policy directions and actions.
At the closing of the fifth year since the initiative began, CRU has carried out participatory strategic planning with the involvement of parties who have worked together since 2015, to move towards the formation of an independent institution in the future. The 2020-2024 CRU Strategic Plan document is an overview of the productive and intensive discussion process in the two series of strategic planning held in Bogor and Jakarta in November 2019. This strategic document lays out the concepts and plans to realize an institution that provides effective, reliable and independent support for the resolution of agrarian and natural resources conflicts towards equitable, inclusive, and sustainable development.
The piling up of agrarian conflict cases begs the question about the efficacy of the conflict resolution approach used. How the conflict resolution approach is applied in helping conflicting parties to reach a peace agreement between them, and even move towards cooperation that is expected to be long-term. The Conflict Resolution Unit (CRU) in collaboration with the Forest and Climate Change Program (FORCLIME) initiated a project to document the experience and learning of multi-party mediation in efforts to manage and resolve agrarian conflicts in Indonesia. This documentation attempts to record lessons learned from the experiences in mediation and at the same time make a critical analysis of the experiences of the mediation teams involved which are supported by both the CRU and FORCLIME.
Conflict over land and natural resources in Indonesia is a phenomenon very much like the tip pf an iceberg – with a number of issues and factors that are invisible above the surface.
One causal factor is that the pace of investment is not in harmony with the policy dynamics that continue to occur amid demands for economic growth.
The rapid increase in demand for land by a variety of interest, particularly large scale industrial expansion, as in palm oil plantations, industrial forest plantations (HTI) to support the pulp and paper industry and mining is in stark contrast with the uncertainty over the legal framework for spatial planning policy. Whereas, spatial regulation aims to maintain a balance between economic interests and environmental sustainability.
Case studies on spatial planning, land tenure and conflicts over land claims in Sumatera and Kalimantan provide empirical evidence about the potential for conflict when the spatial planning process in incomplete. In these situations, opportunities arise that are then utilized by parties to make adjustments and provide justification for their actions. This is why it is important to fully analyze cases of land use conflict that include a spatial planning perspective in order to design more comprehensive and more effective solutions for these settings.
Kamar Dagang dan (KADIN) Indonesia bersama IBCSD meluncurkan panduan praktis penanganan konflik untuk perusahaan berbasis lahan. Panduan ini ditujukan menjadi salah satu alat praktis untuk penanganan konflik terkair lahan.Didalamnya memuat rujukan bagi pelaku usaha yang sedang terlibat konflik dalam dalam memilih forum, cara penyelesaian konflik termasuk tahapan prosedurnya. Panduan ini juga bisa digunakan bagi perusahaan yang telah memiliki prosedur penyelesaian konflik namun ingin memperbaiki ataupun perusahaan yang sedang menyusun prosedur penyelesaian konfliknya. Tidak menutup kemungkinan panduan ini juga dapat digunakan sebagai rujukan perusahaan sektor lainnya.
Conflict over land and natural resources in Indonesia has affected all parties including community. This study aims to answer basic questions of how tangible or intangible costs and losses, caused by land and resource management conflicts are incurred by local communities. The study was conducted in three locations, namely Suku Anak Dalam 113, Bungku Village in Jambi Province, Muara Tae Village in East Kalimantan Province and Trimulya Village in West Kalimantan Province. The study found loss of most forest function has resulted in dramatic changes in the basket of goods consumed at the household level, as these goods had previously been obtained free of cost prior to the conflict over oil palm plantations.
In average, people spends 36,79% of their current consumption to purchase goods that were freely available in the past. Each respondent’s family bears a total cost of Rp41,754,672 (US$3,0036.74) per year as a result of the conflict. This study found that households that own smallholder oil palm plantations or follow the “nucleus” plasma program (pola inti) bear a greater burden of the cost of conflict. The total costs by this group is Rp51,617,040 (US43,754.01) per year or calculated as 37,35% from their current consumptions to purchase goods that were freely available in the past.
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Dalam perjalanannya proses mediasi tidak hanya menghilangkan sengketa dan menghasilkan kesepakatan, namun berpeluang mentransformasikan hubungan para pihak menjadi hubungan yang saling menguntungkan. Namun untuk mencapai hal itu seorang mediator atau pun tim mediator harus berperan ganda yaitu sebagai fasilitator, penasehat dan pengembang kapasitas komunitas.
Demikian temuan dari penelitian tentang “Praktik Terbaik Mediasi Konflik Sumber Daya Alam di Indonesia dan Negara Lain”. Penelitian ini merupakan perwujudan komitmen Conflict Resolution Unit (CRU) dalam upayanya mendukung praktek terbaik mediasi konflik terkait sumber daya alam dan lahan di Indonesia.
Temuan ini menyatakan bahwa peran ganda mediator memberikan ruang lebih luas bagi untuk memahami para pihak dan mengenali kepentingan masing-masing sehingga mampu merumuskan rekomendasi yang dapat membantu untuk menyelesaikan masalah mereka.
Salah satu studi kasus yang dipelajari adalah perjalanan masyarakat kasepuhan Banten Karang dalam upaya mengesahkan tanah Wewengkon sebagai bagian dari tanah adat. Dalam kasus masyarakat kasepuhan Banten Kidul, pemetaan partisipatif menjadi salah satu tahapan penting dalam proses penyelesaian konflik. Tidak hanya menghasilkan peta, namun proses pemetaan partisipatif juga membuka ruang bagi anggota kasepuhan untuk memikirkan keberlanjutan dari wilayahnya.
Dengan menggunakan pendekatan analisa komparatif, penelitian ini mempelajari proses penyelesaian konflik, termasuk didalamnya mengenali bagian-bagian penting dari setiap proses penyelesaian konflik.
Penelitian ini dilaksanakan oleh Mia Siscawati, PhD untuk Conflict Resolution Unit (CRU).
Download: Ringkasang Eksekutif | Laporan
“he cumulative costs of social conflict are significant, undervalued and potentially pose a serious obstacle to productivity for companies, as well as imposing costs on communities and local government.”
A study commissioned by the Conflict Resolution Unit (CRU) has found that social conflicts impact significantly on the bottom line of palm oil companies.
The study concluded that “the cumulative costs of social conflict are significant, undervalued and potentially pose a serious obstacle to productivity for companies, as well as imposing costs on communities and local government.” The purpose of the study was to quantify the costs of social conflict in the palm oil sector.
The study found that the tangible costs to palm oil businesses resulting from social conflict could be up to USD 2,500,000 in the cases studied. The largest of these direct costs are lost income from disrupted plantation operations and staff time diverted from other tasks to address conflict.
It also found that intangible or “hidden” costs for businesses may be up to USD 9,000,000, representing indirect losses associated with the risks of conflict recurring or escalating, reputational loss, and risk of violence to property and people.
Common themes around social conflict in the palm oil sector were identified. These included that conflict was a resource drain; land (and livelihood) is the most important driver of social conflict in the palm oil sector; disputes tend to start with non-violence; conflicts often recur, and conflicts tend to take place during the production phase.
Several important recommendations were put forward, including that palm oil companies improve their conflict policy and management procedures; that more research is needed into the causes, progression and implications of social conflict; and that best practices need to be developed for conflict prevention, mitigation and resolution.
The study “The Cost of Conflict in Palm Oil in Indonesia” was conducted by Daemeter Consulting.
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